How director George Miller learned to thrive in Hollywood


George Miller has finished many issues in his celebrated filmmaking profession. Turned a broken leather-clad cop named Max right into a cinematic hero. Charmed audiences around the globe with, firstly as writer-producer, a cute speaking pig known as Babe, then, as director, a dancing penguin named Mumble. He has labored with a few of Hollywood’s largest stars, received an Oscar with 5 different nominations, chaired the jury at Cannes and, over greater than 4 a long time, grow to be one in every of cinema’s nice storytellers. But till a late summer season morning on Sydney’s Parramatta River, the place he’s clambering into an outdated picket rowboat, Miller has by no means made a cameo in one in every of his movies.

Alfred Hitchcock was well-known for it. Steven Spielberg, Peter Jackson and different acclaimed administrators have finished it. But Miller has at all times most popular staying on the opposite aspect of the digital camera – till now. At least, standing on the opposite finish of a wharf filled with crew members, I feel it’s him.

The man in the rowboat – preparing for a shot after a whirring drone has been dispatched skywards – seems like an escapee from A Thousand and One Nights, with shoulder-length darkish hair, an exaggerated nostril and a spectacular moustache. He is dressed in a saggy Middle Eastern outfit. When “Action!” known as, he rows furiously into the center of the river, wanting up in terror as imaginary arrows rain down. When he stops, a crew member hauls the rowboat again with a rope. Yes, the movie’s publicist confirms, that’s the nice George Miller beneath the disguise.

Longtime collaborator Nico Lathouris has taken over directing for a fleeting shot in Miller’s new movie, the fantasy romance Three Thousand Years of Longing. After he and veteran Australian cinematographer John Seale seek the advice of a monitor – and Miller watches on a pill – they determine they want one other take. So Miller, as soon as a schoolboy rower, paddles furiously out into the center of the river once more. After an issue with a shadow, he does it once more.

Then the person the trailer for Three Thousand Years calls a “mad genius” comes ashore, finds a grassy spot away from the crew who’re packing up, and strips away the disguise.

Media=”(min-width: 1024px)” top=”534″ width=”800″/>Media=”(min-width: 768px)” top=”464″ width=”696″/>Tilda Swinton plays Dr. Alithea Binnie in Miller’s new fantasy romance, Three Thousand Years of Longing.

Tilda Swinton performs Dr. Alithea Binnie in Miller’s new fantasy romance, Three Thousand Years of Longing.Credit:Metro Goldwyn Mayer

The movie has introduced Tilda Swinton and Idris Elba to Sydney. They used their two weeks of resort quarantine, staying in adjoining rooms, to put together for up to 9 hours a day on Zoom. Swinton performs an educational specialising in storytelling, Dr Alithea Binnie, who finds a glass bottle she loves in Istanbul’s Grand Bazaar whereas at a convention. Back in her resort room, she finds it accommodates a djinn – or genie – performed by Elba, who grants her three needs in change for his freedom.

Alithea is sceptical: she is aware of genie tales that contain three needs normally finish badly. So the djinn pleads his case by telling her vivid tales concerning the mysteries of affection over 3000 years. The two – a lady of mind and a magical creature pushed by emotion – grow to be nearer because the tales stream.

Miller performs an Ottoman Empire storyteller who flees after failing to entertain a cruel sultan in one of many djinn’s tales. “It’s a little joke for myself,” he says as he peels off his false nostril. “I have to escape his wrath because he’s annoyed by my stories. I think I end up getting shot three times by arrows as I try to flee.”

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Even a mad genius, whose final movie was the triumphant 2015 launch Mad Max: Fury Road, the fourth instalment in the Mad Max collection, has to duck arrows from time to time.

Eighteen months later, Miller is sitting in a eating room in a post-production home in Sydney’s Fox Studios, flanked by posters for The Matrix, The Wolverine and The Piano. Except that his swept-back hair is greyer, the 77-year-old former physician seems like the identical genial determine – spherical, tinted glasses, heat method – I first interviewed concerning the challenges dealing with the Australian movie business 20 years in the past.

On what must be a Saturday off from capturing Furiosa, the big-budget prequel to Fury Road, he’s dressed in a brown leather-based jacket, darkish pants and boots. After he arrives in a black Mercedes van, Miller’s driver for the shoot, former restaurant proprietor Pedja, lays out sufficient meals on the convention desk to feed a household of 4 and two mugs of inexperienced tea for a late lunch. Miller barely touches both as he talks.

He received’t say a lot about Furiosa; Hollywood studio Warner Bros is insisting on secrecy as a result of it doesn’t open for 2 years. But it’s well-known that Anya Taylor-Joy (The Queen’s Gambit) is a youthful model of the fierce warrior that Charlize Theron performed in Fury Road, Chris Hemsworth has a task and Sydney’s countless winter rain has affected outside capturing. Editor Margaret Sixel, Miller’s spouse and winner of one in every of six Fury Road Oscars, has began assembling footage in a collection off the eating room.

Over the subsequent two hours – then once more on Zoom the subsequent day between Furiosa duties – Miller tells tales just like the djinn, besides they’re concerning the mysteries of filmmaking. Not simply making Three Thousand Years however over a celebrated movie profession that began with the unique Mad Max in 1979, whereas he was nonetheless a locum physician.

Media=”(min-width: 1024px)” top=”930″ width=”620″/>Media=”(min-width: 768px)” top=”774″ width=”516″/>George Miller with film editor and wife Margaret Sixel.

George Miller with movie editor and spouse Margaret Sixel.Credit:Getty Images

It’s a profession that has included nice highs since he shaped movie and TV manufacturing firm Kennedy Miller with the late Byron Kennedy in 1978: worldwide success for Mad Max 2 in 1981, a collection of landmark movie and tv tasks he produced in the Eighties and ’90s that features The Dismissal, Bodyline, Vietnam, The Year My Voice Broke, Dead Calm and Babe, directing two Happy Feet movies, the unlikely success of Fury Road, given how epically tough it was to make, and a Cannes world premiere for Three Thousand Years, with Variety reporting it obtained a six-minute standing ovation. It opens in Australian cinemas on September 1.

But Miller has additionally had painful lows, together with being sacked from the Hollywood movie Contact in the Nineteen Nineties, a simmering feud between Theron and Tom Hardy, who performed Max, whereas capturing Fury Road in the Namibian desert, a disruptive go to to the set by a senior Warner Bros government, then having to sue the studio for unpaid charges on the movie.

What emerges is an enchanting perception into how Miller has efficiently managed to make Hollywood-backed movies whereas dwelling in Australia. In quick, how he has learnt to play Hollywood hardball.


Miller traces his intense imaginative life again to a childhood based mostly round play, with out tv, as one in every of 4 sons of Greek immigrant dad and mom in the agricultural Queensland city of Chinchilla. Father Jim and mom Angela, whose surname had been anglicised from Miliotis, ran a Greek cafe. Saturday matinees on the native cinema impressed jousting contests on horseback among the many brothers, utilizing garbage-can lids as shields, constructing forts, digging tunnels and establishing zip traces to fly like Superman. Three of them went on to be medical doctors, the fourth a lawyer.

After finding out drugs on the University of NSW with twin brother John, then working at St Vincent’s Hospital in Sydney, Miller had been making quick movies when he met Byron Kennedy at a University of Melbourne movie workshop. The inspiration for the high-octane Mad Max was the injury attributable to the nation’s automotive tradition, which Miller had to cope with as an emergency physician.

The thought for Fury Road got here to him out of the blue as he crossed a avenue in Los Angeles in 1998, then performed out like a movie in a dreamlike state on a flight to Sydney two years later.

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Three Thousand Years got here from a extra typical supply: an A. S. Byatt quick story Miller learn in the Nineteen Nineties that struck him as truthful, deep and paradoxical: a fantasy universe stretching over 1000’s of years unfolds in a resort room. At the suggestion of the late Australian playwright Nick Enright, his co-writer on the 1992 medical drama Lorenzo’s Oil, Miller tailored it along with his actor-turned-screenwriter daughter Augusta Gore.

When he was in search of a extra intimate movie to shoot after Fury Road, it jumped to the highest of the pile of attainable tasks. “The story is something that almost takes you over,” Miller says. “The story comes first.” These tales at all times have interaction with real-life points, together with environmental collapse, the hoarding of sources and the rising energy of ladies in the Mad Max collection and the character of fact, need and storytelling in Three Thousand Years.

Media=”(min-width: 1024px)” top=”534″ width=”800″/>Media=”(min-width: 768px)” top=”464″ width=”696″/>Miller and producer Doug Mitchell in 1996, with their Golden Globe award for Babe.

Miller and producer Doug Mitchell in 1996, with their Golden Globe award for Babe. Credit:Getty Images

Producer Doug Mitchell, his accomplice in the manufacturing firm that’s now known as Kennedy Miller Mitchell, says Miller can change simply between “big-picture and little-picture, left and right brain”, including: “He has the ability to discern a bad idea from a good idea and he’s collaborative.”

Even after the success of 1979’s Mad Max – nonetheless one of the worthwhile movies in cinema historical past – Miller questioned whether or not he may make it as a filmmaker. “It left me completely bewildered,” he says from his jap suburbs house. “I had a conversation with [fellow Australian director] Peter Weir, who’d done two features by then. I remember saying, ‘I don’t think I’m cut out to make films.’

“We had a very low budget, Byron and I, and we prepared the film to within an inch of its life. I thought, if you prepare something really well and you know exactly what you want to do, it will all go according to plan. Well, it didn’t. All sorts of crazy things happened. It wasn’t the film that I intended to make.”

“He said, ‘Making a film is exactly like you’re on patrol with your platoon in the jungles of Vietnam. You don’t know where the landmines are, or the snipers.’”

Weir advised him that making a movie was at all times like that. “It was the late ’70s and the Vietnam War wasn’t long over,” Miller says. “He said, ‘Making a film is exactly like you’re on patrol with your platoon in the jungles of Vietnam. You don’t know where the landmines are, or the snipers. You don’t know what’s coming your way next. All you know is you’ve got to complete your mission. And you’ve got to be agile and adapt to anything that happens.’ That really stuck with me.”

Miller determined to study extra about performing, initially from Hugh Keays-Byrne, who acted with the Royal Shakespeare Company earlier than taking part in Toecutter in Mad Max, then via taking performing courses in Los Angeles. Reading Joseph Campbell’s The Hero With a Thousand Faces, he realised why Mad Max labored so properly: it fell right into a basic mythological archetype a couple of loner hero. And he studied silent films.

Miller now felt prepared to start Mad Max 2 (often called The Road Warrior in the US). The shoot, round Broken Hill, proved extremely difficult, however the movie was a crucial and industrial triumph on its launch in 1981.

Miller’s success led to him directing in the US: a section of the sci-fi movie Twilight Zone: The Movie, then the darkish comedy The Witches of Eastwick and Lorenzo’s Oil. He lived in Los Angeles in the mid-Eighties, however discovered it an excessive amount of of an organization city, realising, “I definitely don’t belong here.”

Miller moved again house and considers himself fortunate that Hollywood studios are ready to again the movies he desires to make, inspired by Australian filmmaking incentives that embody the federal authorities’s producer offset – a 40 per cent tax break – that considerably reduces their monetary danger.

Living in Sydney’s jap suburbs fits household life along with his three kids – Augusta, aged 36, with first spouse Sandy Gore, and sons Budo, 27, and Tige, 22, with Sixel – and lets him work with a loyal core of key crew. While he has attorneys and different representatives in the US, Miller can lately solid movies and have conferences with studio executives Online from Australia. “I haven’t been on a plane to Los Angeles for years,” he says.

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One of essentially the most traumatic experiences for any director – in all probability even worse than a movie bombing – is being sacked. It occurred to Miller after he agreed to adapt Contact, Carl Sagan and Annie Druyan’s novel concerning the seek for extra-terrestrial life, for Warner Bros in the early Nineteen Nineties.

“I spent a wonderful year working on that film,” he says. He was getting ready to shoot “a very beautiful screenplay” by Dutch-born author Menno Meyjes (The Colour Purple) when he realised the studio’s executives had been anxious. “At a certain point, they started to panic because the film was ‘too European’. As the budget grew bigger, they weren’t prepared to go for broke. They wanted to play it safe.”

Miller was advised, “If you’re not prepared to compromise, then that’s it.” He was off the movie; Robert Zemeckis (Forrest Gump) later directed it with a distinct screenplay. Miller has seen the identical factor occur typically sufficient to realize it’s simply how Hollywood works – “not because they’re bad guys”.

Media=”(min-width: 1024px)” top=”534″ width=”800″/>Media=”(min-width: 768px)” top=”464″ width=”696″/>Miller’s 1995 film Babe won an Oscar for Best Visual Effects and was nominated for six other awards, including Best Picture.

Miller’s 1995 movie Babe received an Oscar for Best Visual Effects and was nominated for six different awards, together with Best Picture.Credit:AP Photo/Universal

Back in Australia, he produced the 1995 charmer Babe, directed by Chris Noonan. It was a worldwide hit that received an Oscar for Best Visual Effects and was nominated for six different awards, together with Best Picture. He didn’t direct one other movie till the much less profitable however underrated 1998 sequel, Babe: Pig in the City.

Miller as soon as advised college students on the National Institute of Dramatic Art that when he and Jack Nicholson labored on The Witches of Eastwick, the actor gave him some good recommendation about studio executives: “They mistake politeness for weakness; you’ve got to make them think you’re crazy.”

While he has labored efficiently with many different Hollywood stars, notably Mel Gibson, Susan Sarandon, Michelle Pfeiffer, Nick Nolte, Robin Williams, Elijah Wood, Nicole Kidman and Hugh Jackman, the animosity between Theron and Hardy made Fury Road much more tough to shoot in Africa’s Namib Desert.

Kyle Buchanan’s oral historical past of the movie, Blood, Sweat & Chrome, reveals that the connection blew aside after the often-late Hardy left Theron ready on set for 3 hours one morning. She reportedly accused him of being disrespectful and screamed, “Fine the f…ing c… a hundred thousand dollars for every minute that he’s held up this crew.” After he aggressively charged up to her, saying, “What did you say to me?“, she asked for protection from him for the rest of the shoot.

Media=”(min-width: 1024px)” height=”534″ width=”800″/>Media=”(min-width: 768px)” height=”464″ width=”696″/>Fury Road’s feuding actors, Charlize Theron and Tom Hardy.

Fury Road’s feuding actors, Charlize Theron and Tom Hardy.Credit:Alamy

While the tension reflected their characters’ relationship in the film, the stars had different approaches to their work: Hardy is a method actor and a larrikin, Theron is more cerebral and down-to-earth. John Seale, who shot both Fury Road and Three Thousand Years, tells Good Weekend that Miller had to be a diplomat on set. “He knew there was angst between them and he handled them very, very diplomatically and kept things going,” he says. “But it did bear on him. I think, by the end of the movie, he was very relieved he got through all of that.”

Says Miller: “If you’ve got two actors who are at each other for whatever reason, it’s just something you have to deal with. You hope there’s enough resilience within everything that surrounds them that can compensate for whatever dysfunction was there. Would it have been better had that not happened? Way better. But we still had to get the film made.”

“I was not fortunate enough to live at a time when I could have worked with Hitchcock, but I’ve worked with George Miller.”

Both actors subsequently expressed remorse for a way they behaved. Hardy says in Blood, Sweat & Chrome that he was “in over my head” on the movie; Theron, whose adopted daughter was solely 4 months outdated once they went to Namibia, mentioned she was in “survival mode”. Miller says it made him recognize working with Swinton and Elba on Three Thousand Years. “I’m an inaugural member of the Tilda Swinton Club,” he says. “I called her Her Tildaness. It was just a wonderful experience and Idris has that quality as well.”

The appreciation is mutual. Speaking on Zoom, Swinton says she spoke to “this extremely nice person” at a lunch in Cannes for quarter-hour earlier than she discovered he’d directed movies she liked. “He is one of the most loving, communicative, interested, curious people you can ever meet,” she says. “I was not fortunate enough to live at a time when I could have worked with Hitchcock, but I’ve worked with George Miller.”

Elba describes Miller as a grasp of each facet of filmmaking, together with performing. “I have ambitions to direct,” he says. “Going to work with him every day was an absolute masterclass. It was like the best seat in the best film university you could ever have.”

Media=”(min-width: 1024px)” top=”534″ width=”800″/>Media=”(min-width: 768px)” top=”464″ width=”696″/>Miller on the set of Three Thousand Years of Longing, with Idris Elba and Tilda Swinton.

Miller on the set of Three Thousand Years of Longing, with Idris Elba and Tilda Swinton.

Miller deliberate to shoot Fury Road approach again in 2003, till manufacturing stalled due to the looming Iraq War, the rising US greenback, insurance coverage points and issues with Mel Gibson’s deal. When it was revived after Miller had directed two Happy Feet movies, capturing was delayed twice extra in 2009, then 2010, as a result of rain had turned the desert round Broken Hill too inexperienced to move for a post-apocalyptic panorama.

By the time it shot in Namibia in 2012, Fury Road was up to its third Hollywood studio, with Warner Bros taking on from firstly Universal Pictures then twentieth Century Fox. And Max had gone from Mel Gibson, to Heath Ledger till his shock demise in 2008, to Hardy.

For what’s now thought of one of many biggest motion movies in cinema historical past – giving a brand new feminist coronary heart to the style – it had an epic shoot. Miller directed 55 actors and up to 1700 crew, orchestrating 300 stunts involving greater than 200 autos in extremes of warmth and chilly, amid common sandstorms.

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It turned even harder when the president of the Warner Bros movie division, Jeff Robinov, arrived on what Seale calls “a gold-plated Learjet” to “rant and rave” concerning the capturing schedule and the finances. According to Blood, Sweat & Chrome, Robinov insisted that filming end on a date that meant Miller may both shoot the ultimate chase or the opening and shutting scenes … however not each.

At the time, Robinov was in a three-way battle to be the brand new head of Warner Bros. Time Warner chief government Jeff Bewkes finally picked Kevin Tsujihara, with Robinov leaving the studio not lengthy afterwards. After viewing an early minimize of Fury Road, Tsujihara allowed Miller to reassemble the solid and crew in Sydney to shoot the lacking opening and shutting scenes nearly a yr later.

“Jeff Robinov, poor guy, tried to do his own thing, mainly to hang on to his job,” Miller says now. “It was crazy and it was unnecessary.” He has learnt over time that studio executives typically act badly out of worry. “There was a kind of panic in him and he had to assert himself,” he says. “He saw people around him getting sacked. He was vying for a job.”

Miller’s producing accomplice Doug Mitchell says individuals can misinterpret him. “When the going gets tough, George never gives in,” he says. “Sometimes they think he’s a big, cuddly teddy bear and tremendously easy so they try and use it, but he’s very tough.”

Almost universally acclaimed by critics, Fury Road was a bolt of cinematic power that took a strong $US375 million on the worldwide field workplace and, in addition to successful six Oscars, was up for Best Picture and Director. But greater than two years after it was launched, Kennedy Miller Mitchell sued Warner Bros for non-payment of a $US7 million bonus for making the movie.

Media=”(min-width: 1024px)” top=”534″ width=”800″/>Media=”(min-width: 768px)” top=”464″ width=”696″/>Miller directed 55 actors and up to 1700 crew for Fury Road.

Miller directed 55 actors and up to 1700 crew for Fury Road.

In a 2017 doc filed in the Supreme Court of NSW, it claimed the studio acted in a “high-handed, insulting or reprehensible” method, “destroying” the connection of belief by refusing to pay the bonus for delivering the movie beneath finances and breaching a co-financing settlement, which meant they might not work collectively on two extra deliberate Mad Max movies.

In a cross declare, Warner Bros alleged the movie “significantly exceeded the approved budget”, with additional prices largely attributable to the manufacturing firm with out written approval. Miller says it’s important to be “firm” – good understatement – however, regardless of the fierce language, they didn’t set pitbull attorneys on the studio. “People always make the mistake ‘I want the toughest, flashiest, most brutal lawyers,’ ” he says. “That’s not the way to go. You need people who are wise, who really understand the industry and really understand the issues.”

The dispute was resolved out of courtroom – with a confidential settlement – in the identical approach as when Miller sued the identical studio over non-payment of his deal for Contact. “In every case we’ve had litigation with a studio, everyone on the other side at the studio was in a state of flux,” Miller says. “It’s happened twice: a new head comes in, looks at what the previous regime has done and … says, ‘Why are we in litigation with those people? We should be making films with them.’ ” Doug Mitchell says they “found an arrangement which gave us the compensation that we felt we were missing and an appetite to go forward”.

After Kennedy Miller Mitchell financed Three Thousand Years independently, Warner Bros Discovery – a results of the merger between Warner-Media and Discovery Inc – stepped up to again Furiosa. Talent wins out.

I’ve at all times been stunned by how calm Miller appears to be – rugged up in a heat coat even on sizzling days – on set. Surrounded by tons of of solid and crew, he’ll take a second to present a younger actor what a scene seems like on a monitor, or ask a couple of visiting journalist’s job and well being.

“I call it ‘body bags’, where you’re pulling them out every Friday night, the ones that don’t want to come back. George has never had that. People just love to work with him.”

Lesley Vanderwalt, who has labored frequently with Miller since Mad Max 2 and received an Oscar for make-up and hairstyling on Fury Road, says she’s by no means seen him lose his mood on set, although she has labored with some flamable administrators. “I call it ‘body bags’, where you’re pulling them out every Friday night, the ones that don’t want to come back,” she says. “George has never had that. People just love to work with him.”

Miller insists there’s no level dropping your mood. “There was a time in the ’80s when people were doing a lot of drugs, not only in Hollywood movies – cocaine – but even in the Australian film industry,” he says. “One time [on] Mad Max 3, I really had to read the riot act as a producer, but that’s the only time.” Even on Fury Road, he appreciated that the Australian crew knew not to throw tantrums: “they waste time and they freak people out,” he says.

Mitchell says he’s seen Miller “pin his ears back and not suffer fools gladly many times” however by no means do what some hysterical Hollywood sorts do – pound desks, name individuals vile names and march off set. “I’ve never seen him not being able to hit the pause button and deal with somebody,” he says. “He can be angry, but I’ve never heard voices really raised, or an argument.”

Another day on the set of Three Thousand Years, Miller is capturing a scene that has turned the inside of an outdated industrial constructing at Melrose Park in Sydney’s north-west right into a lavishly adorned Ottoman Empire palace, filled with ornate structure and characters dressed in shiny silks and satins.

Media=”(min-width: 1024px)” top=”930″ width=”620″/>Media=”(min-width: 768px)” top=”774″ width=”516″/>“He can be angry, but I’ve never heard voices really raised, or an argument,” says producer Doug Mitchell of the diplomatic directing style of Miller, pictured.

“He can be angry, but I’ve never heard voices really raised, or an argument,” says producer Doug Mitchell of the diplomatic directing model of Miller, pictured. Credit:Tim Bauer

Sultan Suleiman (performed by Australian actor Lachy Hulme), seems down from a balcony at dozens of his topics, magicians, jugglers and concubines. Seeing his favorite consort, Hurrem (performed by model-turned-actor Megan Gale), he has her raised on a pink ribbon to be with him.

Hulme says later that he was sitting on the video monitor between takes, listening on headphones, when Miller excused himself. “I watched him weave his way through all the extras,” he says. “He walked up to one gentleman and said, ‘Hello, what’s your name? I’m George.’ And he said, ‘I’m Frank.’ [Miller] says, ‘Hello Frank, can I get you to take half a step that way? Thanks. Can I get you anything? Are you guys right for water, tea, coffee?’ ” Miller then walked throughout to one other additional, launched himself and mentioned he seen the person making an attempt to catch his slipping turban when he seemed up on the sultan.

Calling over a crew member from wardrobe to Help with the turban, Miller requested if all of the close by extras wanted something, then advised them to have enjoyable. “Remember, it’s a party,” he mentioned.

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To Hulme, these exchanges underline Miller’s “geniality and generosity”, including: “It’s not about perfectionism. It’s that he’s seen it in his head already and he knows what he wants.”

Among the vividly dressed extras is Quaden Bayles, the Indigenous boy with dwarfism who appeared in a distressing 2020 viral video posted by his mom, Yarraka, to present how a lot bullying was upsetting him. Miller was affected by the video, then upset by a suggestion by News Corp columnist Miranda Devine that Yarraka may need coached Quaden in what could possibly be a rip-off. He figured that as a director who had additionally been a health care provider, he may recognise performing – and that wasn’t it. “I thought, ‘What the hell would she know about that?’ ” he says. “That really fired me up.”

While Devine subsequently apologised and a settlement was reached, Miller had already invited Quaden to be in Three Thousand Years. “It was good for us and it was good for him,” he says. “And he did such a good job that he’s got a small role in Furiosa.”

Genius, perhaps. Mad, not a lot.

To learn extra from Good Weekend journal, go to our web page at The Sydney Morning Herald, The Age and Brisbane Times.

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